July 2018 fast food


Fast food is bad for you. “I’m ok and I grew up on a lot of fast food” you may say. But today’s fast food is not the same [1]: it’s much much faster. It’s been getting worse all the time, in spite of so-called ‘healthier options’, which now become fashionable in many outlets.
And the consequences of how we behave today, of the way we feed our kids especially, will be epidemic.
Fast food is bad for you. And here are the reasons.

Fast food often contains rubbish. Do aldehydes and acrolein, heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons sound good to you? Artificial dyes and preservatives?
New research just out this year has shown that the more you eat: “mass produced packaged breads and buns; sweet or savoury packaged snacks; industrialised confectionery and desserts; sodas and sweetened drinks; meat balls, poultry and fish nuggets, and other reconstituted meat products transformed with addition of preservatives other than salt (for example, nitrites); instant noodles and soups; frozen or shelf stable ready meals; and other food products made mostly or entirely from sugar, oils and fats, and other substances not commonly used in culinary preparations such as hydrogenated oils, modified starches, and protein isolates”, the more likely you are to get cancer [2]. For every 10% more ‘ultra-processed’ food eaten, 12% more cancers follow. Even the ‘potential cancer-causing’ packaging migrates into the food. The grease-repellent cardboard and paper products it comes wrapped in, tend to contain per- and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals, associated with cancer, developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity, just for starters. High temperatures and use of emulsified fats significantly increase their migration into your meal [3].

And then there are the antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is one of the main health threats facing us. As if we don’t use enough of those ourselves, many more of them enter the food chain via our meat. In 2011, 80% of all antibiotics distributed in the United States were sold for use in food-producing animals. The majority of these were given to completely healthy animals, to increase weight gain and prevent disease in the crowded, unsanitary industrial farming conditions. England’s chief medical officer warns that the world faces a “post-antibiotic apocalypse” after which routine medical operations would become too dangerous to perform because of the risk of infection [4].

And I’m not even talking about the destruction of the environment involved in producing all this. Heavy packaging – none of which recycled, of course – transport over enormous areas take their toll. So does the factory farming, which creates significant methane emissions and water pollution through excessive fertilization [5].

As Michael Pollan says in ‘In Defense of Food: an Eater’s Manifesto’:
“Avoid food products containing ingredients that are
A) unfamiliar
B) unpronounceable
C) more than five in number or that include
D) high-fructose corn syrup” [6].

It’s not easy, I know. Harder still for our children, who don’t even have memories of how you can live on potatoes and three veg, without ever dropping in at McDonald’s for a burger.
But couldn’t we just try a little bit harder? Against the onslaught of ever more clever advertising? Against the subtle wiles of those who want to make money at all costs at the expense of our very lives?
Baby steps, as always, are excellent. And for some of us, maybe even a clean break could be possible ….


EAT:
veg: beet, broad beans, carrots, chinese leaves, globe artichokes, kohlrabi, cauli, cabbage, (sugar) peas, beans, lettuce, sweetcorn, turnips, courgettes, broccoli, spring onions, squash, radish, tomatoes, samphire, spinach (beet), chard, endive.
fish: mackerel is at its best in July, cheap and an invaluable source of omega 3. Otherwise: dab, black bream, crab, mackerel, clam, dover sole, megrim sole, grey mullet, flounder and American signal crayfish.
meat: lamb, rabbit, wood pigeon.
See also http://eatseasonably.co.uk/what-to-eat-now/this-months-best/.

SOW:
Chinese/spring cabbage, calabrese, carrots, chicory, coriander, endive, florence fennel, kohlrabi, salad onions, (mangetout/sugar snap) peas, mooli, pak choi, turnips, black and white radish (mooli), perpetual spinach, chard, parsley, beetroot, french beans, mini cauliflower, lettuce*.
End of the month: corn salad, black radish, endive, kohlrabi. Sowing kohlrabi late in July should supply them well into the winter. They will stand in the soil until needed.
Plant: kale, sprouts, leeks, winter cabbages, broccoli, calabrese, cauliflower.
*Remember: only crisp lettuce (little gem, cos, webb) germinates well when soil temperature goes above 25°C.

KOHLRABI with CHEESE
Chop kohlrabi into 1-2 cm pieces. Cook till just tender, drain, but keep 120ml of the cooking water. Melt butter in small saucepan over low heat. Add flour and stir well until smooth and blended. Gradually add milk, cooking water and cheese, stirring constantly, until cheese is melted and sauce thick. Add kohlrabi and heat through. Garnish with parsley and nutmeg.

FRENCH BEANS with ANCHOVIES
Cook French beans in salted water. Sauté a large clove of garlic, chopped fine, in olive oil. Add small handful of anchovies (or small tin). Sauté them, crushing them with a wooden spoon, until they “melt”. Add more oil as you need to lightly coat all the beans. Drain beans, add to the anchovies, mix.
And French beans you can also:
toss in a little butter or olive oil; sprinkle with flaked almonds
or mix with boiled potatoes, flaked tuna, black olives and vinaigrette for a salade niçoise.

CHARD
I like sautéing chard (or endive – or even bolted lettuce I expect) in oil with garlic, raisins and pine nuts. Add the garlic late, as it burns easily. Good with peas.

LAMB CHOPS with BROAD BEAN, PICKLED CAULI and POTATO SALAD
1 cauliflower, 4 lamb chops, potatoes and broad beans for 4, ½tsp cumin powder, 100ml olive oil, 30ml cider vinegar, salt, pepper, 2 tbsp toasted pine nuts, 2tbsp chopped parsley.
Break the cauli into large florets. Blanch in boiling salted water until just cooked (about 5 mins). Drain and while still hot, mix with oil, vinegar and cumin. Cook the potatoes and add the broad beans for the last 5 mins. Drain and let cool. Season and cook the chops. Remove them from the pan and rest.
Finish the salad by adding pine nuts and parsley, check the seasoning.
Leftovers will still taste fine the next day.

GREEK BROAD BEANS for 2
3 to 4 tblsp olive oil, 1 grated onion, 400g podded broad beans, 250ml water, 2 tblsp tomato puree, 1 to 2 tsp dried oregano, sea salt, pepper.
Sauté onion for 5 mins in oil, make sure it doesn’t brown. Add beans for 1 more min. Raise heat, add water, tomato puree, oregano, salt and pepper. Cover partially and cook at a strong simmer for 20-25 mins. If toward the end there’s too much water, uncover pan so it evaporates, leaving a rich tomato and olive oil sauce.
In Greece they traditionally serve a big plate of broad beans as a main course with bread to mop up the sauce, and slices of feta. Or you can have it as a side dish.


PAN-FRIED MACKEREL with POTATOES and BEETROOT
400g potatoes and 300g raw beet, cut into chunks; 3 tbsp olive oil; 4 fresh mackerel filleted or 8 mackerel fillets; pinch of cayenne pepper (optional); zest and juice of 1 lemon; 2 tbsp crème fraîche; handful fresh chives, snipped.
Preheat oven to 200°C. Put potatoes and beet in tin with oil and roast for 40 mins. When they have been cooking for 20 mins, prepare mackerel. Slash skin side of the fillets and season with salt, pepper and cayenne. Heat oil in pan with zest and fry fish over high heat for 2-3 mins each side until skin is crisp. Put potatoes and beet in bowl and stir in lemon juice, crème fraîche and chives. Season and serve with the mackerel. Good with spinach.

CREAMY CHEESY SPINACH
500g spinach, 40g butter, 2 sliced garlic cloves, 75g full-flavour cheese, nutmeg, 50ml double cream.
Cook spinach for 3 mins until wilted. Tip into colander, squeeze to remove water. Melt butter, add garlic and cook for 2-3 mins until soft, but not coloured. Add spinach and nutmeg. Season; stir in cream and cheese and cook for 1 min until melted. Serve with boiled potatoes.

DAB IN A BAP, serves 1.
2 dab fillets, butter, seasoned flour, 1 large floury bap, lettuce leaves. Tartar sauce: 1-2 tbsp good mayonnaise, chopped parsley and chives, lemon juice, 1tsp mustard.
First make tartar sauce by mixing all the ingredients. Then heat butter, dust fish with flour and fry for 2 mins each side (if you leave the skin on, fry skin-side down first for 3 mins, then give it 30 secs on the other side to cook through). Slice and butter bap. Dollop on tartar sauce (or ketchup). Lay down lettuce leaves, put fish on top, close bap and eat while fish still warm.

 

[1] www.thehealthyhomeeconomist.com/fast-food-they-dont-make-it-like-they-used-to/?
[2] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-43064290
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2018/feb/14/ultra-processed-foods-may-be-linked-to-cancer-says-study
http://www.bmj.com/content/360/bmj.k322
[3] http://sahm.org/health-fitness/your-kids-become-what-you-feed-them-7-dangers-of-fast-food/
https://draxe.com/eating-fast-food/
https://www.healthline.com/health/fast-food-effects-on-body#8
https://www.livestrong.com/article/518953-consequences-of-eating-junk-food/
http://www.foxnews.com/food-drink/2018/02/15/even-wrappers-for-fast-food-are-bad-for.html
https://aufsi.auburn.edu/fooddefense/2017/02/21/are-fast-food-wrappers-dangerous/
http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/junk-food-affects-children-5985.html
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/researchers-have-found-an-alarming-new-side-effect-from-eating-fast-food-a6985931.html
http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/fast-food-truths_n_4296243
http://www.who.int/features/2014/uk-food-drink-marketing/en/
[4] https://www.thealternativedaily.com/your-fast-food-hamburger-contains-antibiotics
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibiotic_use_in_livestock
https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/farms-antibiotics-healthy-animals-stop-use-who-world-health-organisation-a8044056.html
https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/antibiotics-resistance-apocalypse-warning-chief-medical-officer-professor-dame-sally-davies-drugs-a7996806.html
[5] http://planetmattersandmore.com/environmental-issues/environmental-impact-of-development-and-factory-farming/
https://usagainblog.com/2013/06/19/unsustainable-snacks-fast-food-and-its-environmental-issues/
https://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/10-ways-fast-food-is-destroying-the-world/
https://insteading.com/blog/tedtalks-goes-eco-with-the-other-inconvenient-truth/
http://thinkaboutnow.com/2017/08/how-fast-food-harms-the-environment/
[6] https://www.goodreads.com/author/show/2121.Michael_Pollan

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June 2018: did you know?


To get the full health benefit of garlic and onions you have to cut them up, and then wait 5 (garlic) and 10 (onions) minutes before using them. That way the health-promoting alliicin can form. If you don’t do that, you will miss out on all the beneficial effects. And then cook it, ideally, for no longer than 15 minutes. See [1].

Artificial sweeteners seem an obvious way to cut down on sugar. However, in fact they prompt us to eat more. Because real sugar gives you two hits of sweetness.
Proper sugar first activates sweet receptors on your tongue, boosting dopamine. Later it does it again: glucose is absorbed during digestion, so the reward system gets a second hit. With artificial sweeteners, you only get the first hit. So they decouple sweetness from satisfaction and leave people unsatisfied, so they compensate by eating more. From [2].

Did you know fruit and veg contain the most nutrition when they are ripe? Many nutrients are formed as the food ripens. Immediately after they are picked, their sugars begin to convert to starch, their cells begin to shrink and the nutrients start to diminish.
So the sooner you eat fresh foods, the more nutritious they are [3].

Some health tips which you may not have expected. Exercise when you’re tired? Don’t brush after eating if you want your teeth to stay healthy? Here they, and some others, are explained: [4].

If you buy meat at a butcher’s, this is what you get: meat.
If you buy it in a supermarket this is what you get: meat in Modified Atmosphere packing usually containing nitrogen and/or carbon dioxide and/or dioxygen. To make it look fresh. Not pleasant, and some of these can even be dangerous [5].
Since I found out that our local butcher – and not he alone, I expect – sells only free range meat and never puts rubbish in his sausages, I have religiously avoided supermarket meat sections. Farmers markets of course are best of all, and often cheaper. Here’s how to find those: [6]. See also [7].

Evidence is emerging from multiple sources that gut flora can actually be permanently altered by drugs. At the very least, the damage persists for years. Even a short course of antibiotics can lead to resistant bacterial populations taking up residence in the gut, to stay there for up to 4 years – maybe even longer [8].
How to use safely the best natural antibiotics: see [9].

Here is the shoppers’ guide to the most, and the least contaminated foods. It’s American, of course – pity we don’t do that here – but it won’t be that different in Britain [11]. See also their FAQs.

“Avoid food products containing ingredients that are A) unfamiliar B) unpronounceable C) more than five in number or that include D) high-fructose corn syrup”.
Says Michael Pollan, in ‘In Defense of Food: an Eater’s Manifesto’ [10].

And last but not least, a letter which appeared in the New Scientist as long ago as 2006.
It seems to many of us in general medical practice in the UK that the (….) change to which the National Health Service is being subjected is largely driven by the drug companies. The resulting exponential rise in drug costs means that increases in health budgets are not translated into predicted health improvements, something that politicians seem unable to comprehend.
24 May 2006, Steve Hawkins, GP, Truro [12].
And those were the good times – Tony Blair, remember? Labour in charge?

SOW:
beetroot, calabrese, lettuce, french beans, kale, carrots, cauliflower (mini only), salad onions, (sugar) peas, radish, kohlrabi, mooli, turnip, chicory, Florence fennel, courgettes and pumpkins.
Sow swede and sweetcorn in early June. If the soil is above 25°C, sow crisphead, cos or little Gem only.
Plant out: courgettes, cabbage, sprouting broccoli, sprouts, celery, celeriac, ridge cucumbers, runner/french beans, pumpkins, tomatoes, sweet corn.

EAT:
veg: broad beans, beet, cabbage, carrots, lettuce, new potatoes, artichokes, asparagus, broccoli, mangetout, peas, cauliflower, radish, spinach, spring onions, spring greens, watercress, kohlrabi, turnips, rhubarb, redcurrants, strawberries, gooseberries.
meat: lamb, wood pigeon [9].
fish: grey mullet, black bream, gurnard, pollock, whiting, mackerel, lobster, whelks, clams, cockles, coley, crabs, crayfish, flounder, grouper, gurnards, herring, megrim, scallops.
 See also http://eatseasonably.co.uk/what-to-eat-now/this-months-best/.

CARROT-THYME SOUP with CREAM*, 8 servings.
1400g carrots, 2l stock, 2 sprigs thyme, 120ml heavy cream*, salt (cumin). Other spices galore.
Put carrots, stock, and thyme in a pan. Bring to a boil, reduce heat and simmer for 45 mins – 1 hour. Puree, stir in cream. Season. Personally I think this soup can do with lots of spices, like curry or whatever you like. May need thinning.
* Try make it full fat if possible: this will help you absorb nutrients much better and does not make you fat [a].

WATERCRESS
in sarnies – good brown bread, thick spread of butter, sprinkle of salt
in a soup – just a plain potato, onion and stock base – add the watercress at the end, blitz and stir in a gloop of thick cream
sauteed as a side dish with pretty much any meat or fish dish you can think of.

EASY TURNIP GREENS
500g chopped turnip greens, shallot or small onion, 1 clove garlic or more, red pepper.
Cook greens, chopped onion, and squashed garlic in some salted water, stirring occasionally, for 5 minutes. Cook until greens are tender, for about 20 mins. Drain, add red pepper and heat through.

PAN-FRIED MACKEREL with POTATOES and BEETROOT
400g potatoes cut into chunks, 300g halved baby beet, 3 tbsp olive oil, 4 fresh mackerel, filleted or 8 mackerel fillets, (pinch of cayenne pepper), zest and juice of 1 lemon, 2 tbsp crème fraîche, handful fresh snipped chives.
Preheat oven to 200°C. Place potatoes and beet in a tin with 2 tblsp oil and roast for 40 mins. When they have been cooking for 20 mins, prepare mackerel. Slash along the skin side of the fillets and season with salt, pepper and cayenne. Heat remaining oil in a frying pan with the lemon zest and fry fish over a high heat for 2-3 mins on each side until the skin is crisp. Put potatoes and beet in a bowl and stir in lemon juice, crème fraîche and chives. Season, serve with the mackerel.

BROAD BEANS with SOUR CREAM*
1 unshelled kg broad beans, 1 tsp lemon juice, 1 tsp grated rind, 1 tsp mustard, 1 beaten egg yolk, 180ml sour cream*, nutmeg, 1 tsp chopped mint, salt, little soy.
Shell beans, steam till tender. Put everything bar the yolk in a in pan. Let thicken over low heat. Add yolk, stir, don’t boil. Serve immediately.
* See carrot soup above.

(SPRING) CABBAGE with BACON and CREME FRAICHE*
300g chopped bacon pieces, 1 chopped onion, sea salt, 1 green cabbage, 120ml crème fraîche.
Sauté bacon with olive oil until it begins to crisp. Add chopped onion with a pinch of salt and sauté for a few more mins until translucent. Cut cabbage into 1″ pieces. Add to bacon and onions, and cook for 10 mins or until it has wilted. Add crème fraîche and cook for 5 mins more, adjusting seasoning.
* See carrot soup above.

SALAD OF BABY PEAS and SPRING ONIONS, serves 4-6
500g baby peas, 10 sliced spring onions; 125g cottage/cream cheese or fromage frais, 1 tblsp lemon juice, 1 1/2 tblsp extra virgin olive oil, (thyme,) butter, salt, pepper.
Cook peas for 2 mins max., drain. Saute onions for 4 mins. Transfer to bowl, mix in warm peas. Whisk lemon, oil, seasoning, add veg. Crumble on cheese, serve immediately.

TRICK: how to improve simple meals for one or two people.
Boil veg as usual, using little water. Meanwhile, fry/sauté your meat or onions or fish or (boiled) potatoes or whatever you have to fry that day.
When things are ready, turn off the hobs and put what is in your frying pan on the waiting plate(s). Drain veg well, and quickly throw it in the still hot and greasy pan. Swivel it round in the fat a few times, and add it to your plate(s).
Benefits:
a) flavoursome veg which has not lost nutrients due to high-heat cooking;
b) no wasted of oil/butter/fat;
c) a frying pan which is much easier to clean.
d) the fat which has been added to your meal, will help you absorb all those lovely vitamins and minerals. 
Dead easy – try it!


[1] http://whfoods.org/genpage.php?tname=george&dbid=136 and http://therightnutritionplan.com/2011/06/hidden-health-benefits-of-garlic-and-onions/.
[2] Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol 24, p 431. See also https://draxe.com/artificial-sweeteners/.
[3] http://greenopedia.com/local-food-is-healthier/
https://www.gaiam.com/blogs/discover/benefits-of-eating-what-s-in-season
[4] http://www.health.com/health/gallery/0,,20857218,00.html#drink-water-when-you-re-bloated-0
[5] Modified Atmosphere packing
[6] http://information-britain.co.uk/othertypes.cfm?type=Farmers%20Market.
[7] https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/features/why-you-should-get-to-know-the-butcher-8515714.html
https://www.thehealthyhomeeconomist.com/why-supermarket-meat-is-always-unnaturally-red/
[8] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20352091?dopt=Abstract
[9] https://www.thehealthyhomeeconomist.com/how-to-use-best-natural-antibiotics/
https://www.thehealthyhomeeconomist.com/protocol-for-gut-support-during-and-after-a-round-of-antibiotics/
http://www.thehealthyhomeeconomist.com/why-antibiotics-today-could-threaten-your-life-tomorrow/
[10] https://www.goodreads.com/author/show/2121.Michael_Pollan
[11] https://www.ewg.org/foodnews/list.php#.Wo04Kq2cY3o
[12] https://www.newscientist.com/letter/mg19025530-200-legal-drug-pushers/
[13] https://www.wellandgood.com/good-food/full-fat-dairy-good-for-you/slide/5/
https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/hsph-in-the-news/full-fat-dairy-may-reduce-obesity-risk/

May 2018: our precious eyesight

We don’t normally realize how precious our eyes are, until we get trouble. Short sight, far sight, those are easily dealt with. But what about cataracts, glaucoma, and the feared macular degeneration?
Every so often, another piece appears in the papers about how scientists have now invented a clever way to deal with one or another of these. But even so, and till some of these miracle cures have become mainstream, prevention is still best.
There are lots of things we can do for ourselves. Good food is always a very important one, which also happens to improve our health in other respects.

DIET
To prevent yourself from getting eye problems, or to alleviate them once you’ve got trouble, it is important to include the following in your diet.
Lutein and zeaxanthin: in eggs (free range), coloured fruit, leafy green, spinach, kale, collard greens, cos, broccoli, sweetcorn, peas, Brussels, pumpkins, orange peppers, pistachio nuts, grapes.
Carotenoids are plant pigments responsible for bright red, yellow, orange and dark green hues: in for instance carrots, spinach, kale, brussels sprouts, cabbage, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, red capsicums and oranges.
Vitamin A/beta-carotene: liver, egg; fruits/veg (carrots, pumpkin, squashes, spinach, kale, tomatoes).
It is important to combine lutein, carotenoids and vitamin A with fat like butter or olive oil, so our bodies can absorb the benefits.
Zinc: oysters, shellfish in general, meat/poultry, beans/peas, nuts/seeds, egg yolks, whole grains, cheese. Veg(etari)ans: see [1].
Vitamin C: we all know where they are: in fruit and veg, especially when eaten raw.
Vitamin E: in seeds/(pea)nuts, dark leafy greens like spinach, broccoli, plant oils, (shell)fish, pumpkin, avocado.
B-vitamins: B2 deficiency can lead to dimmed vision and red, itchy, burning eyes. In meat, cheese, almonds, mushrooms, spinach, marmite/brewer’s yeast, eggs, milk. This vitamin is damaged by light.
Vitamin B6 can prevent macular degeneration when taken with B12. It also improves absorption of magnesium, which helps production of tears. In nuts/seeds, fish, poultry/meat, dried fruit, capsicum, spinach, broccoli, marmite/brewer’s yeast, whole grains, beans/peas, potatoes in their skins.
Vitamin B12 lessens our chance of getting macular degeneration, when taken with B6. It also prevents glaucoma. In (shell)fish, liver, beef/poultry, marmite/brewer’s yeast, milk/yoghurt and eggs.
Omega 3: in oily fish (sardines, mackerel, herring), walnuts, flax seed/oil and egg yolks. Brussels, kale, spinach, pumpkin, broccoli and watercress also have some, but in a less useful form.
See also [2].

ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION doesn’t help our eyesight at all. It drains our stores of critical vitamins and nutrients, like the above mentioned vitamin A and zinc. It also depletes supplies of B-complex vitamins: this can harm the liver [3], which converts beta-carotene into this vitamin A. Dry or red eyes are only a minor effect [6]. Worse is that drinking alcohol increases the risk of cataracts, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. See [4].

MACULAR DEGENERATION develops when the part of the eye responsible for central vision stops functioning properly. Reading becomes difficult, colours less vibrant and faces are hard to recognise. It is the leading cause of severe, irreversible vision loss in people over 60, which is why they often speak of AMD, age-related macular degeneration.
There are two forms, the wet and the dry, the latter being most common [5]. There is no treatment for the dry form, but a lot can be done with the proper food and supplements. The wet form cannot be cured, only slowed down, mainly with injections [5].

BLUE LIGHT
Very important, and not commonly known, is the damage done by so-called blue light. This is light with wavelengths shorter than 480 nanometer. Confusingly, actually it does not show as blue, but as sharp white. It is harmful because it can penetrate all the way to the back of the eye, bypassing the eye’s natural filters. Blue light is not new, but the amount of exposure we get through digital devices and energy-saving lights has grown enormously. Artificial sources include smart phones, tablets, computers, Mp3 players and TV’s; also CFL’s, LEDs or halogen, the so-called energy-efficient lightbulbs. The effects of these are cumulative, and macular degeneration can be the result [6].
Fortunately we can protect ourselves by wearing so-called blue-blockers, glasses (often fit-over ones) which block the harmful rays [7].
PS It’s interesting to read what we are supposed to go through when one of those suppose eco-friendly bulbs breaks – see [8]!

CATARACTS
Risk factors for cataracts are: a history of the condition in the family; smoking; over-exposure to UV rays; regularly drinking too much alcohol; diabetes; eye surgery; corticosteroid medication or a high intake of refined sugar.
When in the first stages of cataract formation, it is relatively easy to slow or stop the process. You can of course wait till they get worse, but a cataract operation, though common, is still an operation. And while most patients get good results; a small percentage are left worse off. And did you know that up to 3% of those who have had cataract surgery will in future develop a detached retina?
If you decide to try and do something yourself to protect your eyesight, remember that this will benefit the rest of your body as well.
So what can you do at this moment?
In the first place, follow the above advise about food. Lutein and zeaxanthin; vitamin B1, B2, C and vitamin E are excellent. Alpha lipoic acid is a powerful anti-oxidant – in organ meats and spinach. Supplements don’t work so well and have their drawbacks. Glutathione, another strong antioxidant, is produced in our body. Production is boosted by eating: asparagus, broccoli, avocado, spinach, garlic, grapefruit, squash, potatoes, courgettes, watermelon, strawberries, fish, meat, eggs, brazils, seafood, and sunflower seeds.
The herbs bilberry and gingko also help. And see [9].

GLAUCOMA
All sites seem to agree that regular mild exercise is important to prevent glaucoma, and so is diet, see above. Smoking, caffeine and white sugar are out again, I’m afraid. For details see [10].

And here are some suggestions of natural remedies you can try for minor complaints.

EYE INFECTION
There are various types of eye infections you can get: blepharitis, styes, red eye/conjunctivitis, pink eye, dry eyes etc. For some useful sites, see [11].

FLOATERS
Keep your eyes in constant movement. Roll your eyes upwards, downwards, sideways and in circular motions for a few minutes at regular intervals [12]. And, apparently, the brain ignores floaters faster if you gaze at the moon for just five minutes every night. Easily said ….
DRY EYES – see [13].
PUFFY EYES – see [14].
YELLOW EYES – see [15].
RED/PINK EYES/CONJUNCTIVITIS – see [16].
UNDER EYE BAGS – see [17].
EYESTRAIN – see [18].
STYES – see [19].
COMPUTER VISION – see [20].
TWITCH see – [21].

And did you know that rubbing your eyes is bad for them? Personally, when they itch, I massage the corners with saliva …. Just bathing them in cold water also helps [22].


SOW:
direct: beet, calabrese, carrots (though June sowings get less rootfly), french/runner beans, kohlrabi, lettuce, sweetcorn, swede, salsify/scorzonera, spring onions, spinach (beet), courgettes, marrows, pumpkins, (sugar) peas. If pea moth’s a problem, wait till mid May.
in seedbed to transplant: leeks, cabbage, cauli, sprouting broccoli (early May), kale.
in trays: beans, courgettes, cucumbers, melon, pumpkins, pepper, sweetcorn, tomatoes.
plant out: cauli; cucumbers, marrows, pumpkins, tomatoes, squashes late May.
Green manure: if you have space, do it now. See www.bbc.co.uk/gardening/basics/techniques/soil_growgreenmanure1.shtml.

EAT:
veg: spring greens, cabbage, spinach, chard, cauli, salad leaves/lettuce, radish, rocket, asparagus, sorrel, watercress, rhubarb, seakale.
herbs: chives, parsley, mint, lovage, summer savoury and chervil.
wild food: broom buds, chives, dandelions, fat hen, hogweed shoots, hop shoots, meadowsweet, sea spinach, sorrel, watercress, wild fennel, wild garlic, wild rocket, samphire.
game: wood pigeon, lamb, mutton, guinea fowl, rabbit, duck.


NETTLE SOUP
60g young nettles, weighed after stripping from the stalks, 1 large onion, 50g butter, 2 largeish potatoes, 1l water, 2 tblsp creme fraiche, seasoning, nutmeg.
Wash nettles. Melt butter and simmer chopped onion until golden. Add nettles and chopped potatoes, cook for 2-3 mins. Add water, simmer for 20 mins. Liquidize. Add seasoning plus grated nutmeg, serve with creme fraiche.

CREAMY MASHED POTATOES with GOAT’S CHEESE and FRESH SAGE
900g potatoes cut into 2cm cubes, 140g soft goat cheese, 60ml sour cream or whole milk, 2 tblsp butter, 4 tsp chopped sage, sage sprigs.
Cook potatoes in salted water until tender; drain. Add cheese, milk and butter; mash. Mix in sage; season. Garnish with fresh sage sprigs.
This can be made 2 hours ahead. Let stand at room temperature. Rewarm slowly, and thin with more milk, if it is too thick.

SPRING GREENS with ANCHOVIES, CREME FRAICHE, LEMON and PINE NUTS
Spring greens, anchovies, garlic, balsamic vinegar, creme fraiche, lemon juice, pine nuts, salt, pepper.
Dry toast pine nuts. Remove stems from the cabbage and chop. Chop garlic. Drop both into boiling salted water for 6 mins. Drain, save liquid for stock. Melt at least 4-5 anchovies in some of their oil and maybe a little bit more olive oil. Cook gently until they break down and soften. Add balsamic vinegar, some lemon juice and plenty of creme fraiche and freshly ground pepper. Tip greens into the mix and stir to warm and coat it. Put on mashed potatoes, pine nuts on top, serve immediately.

BUTTERY SPRING GREENS with CREME FRAICHE
500g spring greens, 200g peas (weighed after podding), 35g butter, 4 tbsp crème fraîche, ginger.
Put chopped cabbage in boiling salted water; 5 mins later, peas. After 5 more mins, drain. Add ginger. Saute drained veg in butter for ab. 5 mins, stir in crème fraîche, season, serve.

PASTA DIFFERENT for 1 to ???
Lots of shredded greens like cabbage, (frozen) peas, pasta, easy-to-cook meat like mince, sausage or bacon; basil, (cream cheese), spices, seasoning.
Prepare the vegetables, and heat slightly salted water. When it boils, throw in the pasta and veg, which should take roughly the same time to cook. If the peas are frozen, add them a bit later. If you use sausages or bacon, cut in ab. 2.5cm pieces, then fry.
When the veg-pasta mix is done, pour off the water (good for soup!) and add the mix to the frying meat. Stir; season; add basil and spice it up, chilli is good. Also, or instead of the meat, mix in some cream cheese if you like and make sure it melts.
Enjoy.

FISH CAKES, 4 patties
1 tin (ab 112g) mackerel, ab. 120ml cold mashed potatoes, small minced onion, 1/2 tsp. lemon juice, 1 small egg, beaten, 1/8 tsp. salt, 1/8 tsp. pepper, flour, oil.
Sauté the onion till soft but not burned. Take out of the pan and mix with fish, mash, egg, lemon juice and seasoning. Shape into patties. Dredge in flour, fry about 10 minutes or until brown, turn once. Drain well.

SPAGHETTI alla PUTANESCA
Dried spaghetti for 4, 2 tbsp olive oil, plus extra to drizzle, 8 chopped anchovy fillets, 3 chopped garlic cloves, chilli flakes/powder, 1 tsp dried oregano, 400g can chopped tomatoes, large handful black olives, 1 tbsp roughly chopped capers, (large handful fresh basil).
Cook the pasta al dente. Heat the oil, throw in the anchovies and sizzle for 2 minutes until they’ve broken down. Add garlic, chilli and oregano and cook for 1 minute. Pour in the tomatoes, increase the heat and bubble for 3-5 minutes or until the sauce has thickened. Stir in olives and capers. Drain the pasta, leaving a bit of water coating the strands, then tip into the sauce. Stir, add some olive oil and mix while heating it thoroughly. Serve straight away with fresh basil if you have any.

1-PAN VEGETARIAN CURRY, serves 3-4
For the flavour base:
3 tblsp cooking oil, 1 large diced onion, 2 minced garlic cloves, 1 tblsp curry powder, 1 tsp allspice powder, 1 tsp nutmeg powder or 1/2 tsp freshly grated, 1 1/2 tsp paprika, 2 tsp dried thyme leaves/3 tsp fresh, 1 tsp cumin powder, 1/2 tsp cayenne pepper, 1/4 tsp black.
For the curry:
360ml potatoes cut in 1.2 centimeter cubes, 2×400-gram drained tins chickpeas (keep the water), 400-gram tin of diced tomatoes, 480ml (chickpea) water, 2 sliced shallots, chopped parsley, salt.
Heat the oil, add the first lot of ingredients and cook for 3 minutes until the onion is translucent. Then add the potatoes and cook for 2 more minutes. If the spices start to stick to the bottom, put in a tiny splash of water. Add the chickpeas, tomatoes, and the liquid. Simmer for 15 minutes or until the potatoes are cooked and the sauce has thickened. Adjust salt. Stir in the shallots and parsley. Serve with rice, or add just a little bit more potatoes for a full meal.

Next month: did you know?


[1] https://www.myfooddata.com/articles/zinc-foods-for-vegans-vegetarians.php
[2] http://www.eyehealthweb.com/healthy-eyes/
https://www.symptomfind.com/nutrition-supplements/vitamins-to-improve-eyesight/
[3] http://thehealthydrinker.com/2012/06/vitamin-b-and-alcohol/
[4] http://www.protect-your-eyesight.com/heavy-alcohol-consumption-damages-your-vision.html
https://coopervision.com/blog/what-effect-alcohol-eye
https://www.essilor.co.uk/All-about-vision/evolution-of-the-eyes2/How_Alcohol_Affects_Your_Eyes
https://www.improveeyesighthq.com/alcohol-and-eyes.html
https://www.belmarrahealth.com/excessive-alcohol-consumption-affects-eyesight-and-vision/
https://www.bouldermedicalcenter.com/nutrition-recommendations-consume-alcohol/
https://www.rebuildyourvision.com/blog/food-for-your-eyes/alcohol-cataracts-and-other-drinking-related-visual-disorders/
https://homeremediesfor.com/alcoholism/
https://www.express.co.uk/life-style/health/732551/macular-degeneration-eye-blind-drinking-alcohol
[5] http://www.visionaware.org/info/your-eye-condition/age-related-macular-degeneration-amd/treatments-for-dry-macular-degeneration/125
http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/amd.htm
https://www.rebuildyourvision.com/blog/food-for-your-eyes/benefits-antioxidants-delaying-age-related-macular-degeneration/
http://www.karenhurd.com/pages/healthtopics/specifichealthconcerns/ht-shc-maculardegeneration, https://www.brightfocus.org/macular/wet-macular-degeneration/treatments.
[6] https://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-matthew-alpert-od/blue-light_b_5570433.html
http://www.healingtheeye.com/Articles/Blue_light_ARMD.html
http://www.amdblog.org/treatments/blue-light-exposure-and-your-ocular-health/
[7] In 2007 I was diagnosed with dry macular degeneration – the form which is supposedly incurable. The optician told me it was good to eat kale, and …………… by that I did some more research. This is when I found that important nutrients to fight MD are lutein, vitamins C and E, beta carotene and zinc (and if you take lots of zinc you should take copper as well).
Lutein, as well as many other nutrients, is abundantly in kale. In general, dark leafy greens and colorful fruits and vegetables are excellent. Kale and marigold tea have been my standby ever since. I bought blublocker glasses and still use them when watching the computer, the tv and
in a car when faced with unpleasant headlights. Online you can get blueblockers to wrap around your prescription glasses from £40 at www.optimalowvision.co.uk. Click on anti-glare spectacles and make sure you choose one with blue-blocking filter. Or order ‘wraparound fitovers’ via Robert Frith (www.frithsopticians.co.uk) opticians in Devon or Somerset.
I managed to get rid of my macular degeneration entirely by these means, plus some acupuncture treatments. You might not be so lucky, but you certainly can do a lot yourself to prevent it getting worse.
[8] https://www.epa.gov/cfl/cleaning-broken-cfl
[9] http://www.eyesight.nu/category/eye-diseases/cataracts/
www.raysahelian.com/cataract.html
https://www.essilor.co.uk/All-about-vision/eye_conditions
https://www.earthclinic.com/cures/cataracts.html
[10] https://draxe.com/glaucoma-natural-treatment-prevention/
https://www.belmarrahealth.com/glaucoma-natural-home-remedies-diet/
http://www.vision-and-eye-health.com/glaucoma-prevention.html
https://www.brightfocus.org/glaucoma/prevention-and-risk-factors
https://www.naturaleyecare.com/articles/glaucoma-keeping-your-vision-young-and-healthy.asp
[11] https://www.curejoy.com/content/home-remedies-to-treat-eye-infections-naturally/
http://www.home-remedies-for-you.com/remedy/Eye-Infection.html
[12] www.ehow.com/how_5100399_improve-natural-eye-floaters-treatment.html
[13] https://www.top10homeremedies.com/how-to/get-rid-dry-eyes-naturally.html
https://www.webmd.com/eye-health/dry-eyes-home-remedies#1
https://www.earthclinic.com/cures/natural-remedies-for-dry-eyes.html
[14] https://www.eyehealthweb.com/puffy-eyes/
http://www.nowloss.com/Home-Remedies-for-Puffy-Eyes.htm
https://www.earthclinic.com/cures/natural-remedies-for-puffy-eyes.html
[15] https://www.epainassist.com/articles/what-causes-yellow-eyes-and-home-remedies-to-get-rid-of-it
[16] http://www.best-home-remedies.com/eyes_disorders/conjuntivitis.htm
https://www.nlda.org/a/red-eyes/
http://www.mommypotamus.com/natural-remedies-pink-eye-styes/
[17] https://draxe.com/how-to-get-rid-of-bags-under-eyes/
[18] http://www.best-home-remedies.com/eyes_disorders/eyestrain.htm
[19] https://www.earthclinic.com/cures/sty.html
http://health.facty.com/ailments/body/9-home-remedies-styes/9/
[20] https://www.earthclinic.com/cures/computer-vision-syndrome.html
[21] https://www.earthclinic.com/cures/how-to-stop-eye-twitching-naturally.html
[22] http://www.abc.net.au/health/talkinghealth/factbuster/stories/2012/09/18/3592456.htm

 

April 2018: fish

We’re supposed to eat fish twice a week, for our much needed omega 3. Mind you, to a lesser extent this can also be found in full-fat milk, but only when it comes from cows fed on grass. Because in cows fed the modern way – on chemically-grown cereals, maize and soya meal – the milk contains far less of this, and other useful nutrients. The same holds for meat. If it’s grass-fed it has omega 3, so lambs and sheep are ok; cattle don’t have quite so much [1].
Flax seeds and walnuts also contain it, and so do cos lettuce, spinach, kale, turnip greens, squash, sprouts and french beans, less of it. See [2].
But here we’re talking about fish.

Do you buy yours in a fish shop or a supermarket? For atmosphere and helpful information, nothing can beat a good local fish shop, but most of us go to the supermarket.
It is said that ’fresh’ fish in supermarkets is often nothing like it [3]. Frozen is another matter. If frozen on the ship within hours of being caught, apparently fish looses none of its nutrients.
And then there are the tins. Nothing beats having a store of tins in your cupboard: sardines are my favourite. Recently, Fish4Ever was named the most ethical tinned fish provider in the UK. It has been awarded top score for sustainable sourcing by Greenpeace. What’s more, every Fish4Ever tin tells you where the fish was caught, and their website lets you trace it from your plate back to the sea: it explains conservation issues, fishing methods and processing [4].

Greenpeace believes we should eat less fish altogether. For fish are supplied in a fundamentally different way to other animal foods. Meat and dairy products are farmed. As we consume them, more animals are reared to ensure continued supply. In stark contrast, the vast majority of fish we eat are not farmed but mined – taken from the ocean without consideration for maintaining the source.
And when they do farm fish it’s even worse. Apart from widespread pollution caused by chemicals, antibiotics and vaccines, wild-caught fish are used to feed the stock. One of the worst is farmed salmon: it takes more than five kilograms, and up to a hundred!! –  of feed fish to produce one kilogram of farmed salmon ….. [5].

So if you want to buy sustainably, which fish do you choose? There is plenty of information out there. It’s always a good idea to buy bycatch: those fish which are caught accidentally while trying for the valuable ones. You can tell which is bycatch because it’s usually cheaper than the others.
Or ask in the shop. Why not try dab instead of plaice or sole? Or pollack/coley instead of cod or haddock? Whiting and grey gurnard are always good.
Avoid farmed fish, see above. Shellfish is an exception, because farming those actually improves the quality of the water, as the bivalves act as filters [6].
See [7].

There’s a very quick guide which shows you which fish stocks are under pressure and which are ok to eat at http://whichfish.org.
If you don’t live in Britain, see [8] for information about good fish guides.
And if you are buying fresh, [9] shows you what’s in season.
For general info about fish, go to https://www.mcsuk.org and https://www.msc.org.
For an in-depth study about different types of omega 3 and the needs of veg(etari)ans especially, see [2].

EAT:
veg: purple sprouting broccoli, chard, cabbage, leeks, spring onions, spinach, watercress, loose-leaved lettuce, radish, sorrel, spring greens.
meat: lamb, wood pigeon.
fish: cockles, crab, langoustine, lobster, prawns, salmon, shrimp, herring, mussels, British crayfish.

SOW:
direct: lettuce, rocket, radish, beet, broad beans, calabrese, kohlrabi, parsnips, peas, spinach (beet), spring onions, chard, carrots.
Plant: summer cabbage, onion sets (early), potatoes, cabbage, leeks.
Sow to transplant: leeks, brussels, sprouting broccoli, autumn cauli, kale.
If you have a lawn mower which collects grass, you can throw it on the compost heap. You haven’t got one? Then put them at the base of a hedge: in due time it will show its thanks.

 

 FISH FILLET
Fillet, rosemary, olive oil, sea salt, sliced lemon.
Preheat oven to 220°C. Slash skin side of the fish diagonally; put rosemary into the gaps. Rub the rest with olive oil and salt. Sear in a pan skin-side down, until the skin starts to crisp. Transfer to oven for 5 mins. Serve with lemon and olive oil.

CRAB CAKES
2 slices firm bread, 225g crabmeat, 1.5 tblsp oil, 1 tsp lemon juice plus wedges, 1/2 tsp Worcestershire or soy sauce, 1 large egg, beaten, 2 tblsp butter.
Tear the bread into small pieces, mix with crab. Add oil, Worcestershire/soy, egg, salt. Mix gently but thoroughly, form into patties. Heat butter until foam subsides: cook crab cakes, turning once, until golden.

FISH STEW, serves 2
1 tin mackerel in olive oil, 1 tbsp oil from the tin, 1 onion (chopped), 750ml chopped celery or Florence fennel, 1/2 tin tomatoes, lemon juice, parsley, cayenne/red pepper, salt/pepper (olives).
Drain mackerel but keep the oil, break apart. Sauté the onions and celery/fennel in this oil for 2-3 mins. Add the tomatoes. Bring to a boil and cook for 2 mins, stir as needed. Add fish and return to boil, simmer for 10 mins. Add a bit of lemon juice, olives and seasonings. Stir occasionally and add water if needed. Serve over potatoes, rice or other grain, with crackers or with bread.

SARDINE HASH
This can be served with or without buttered granary bread. Serves 2.
1 120g tin sardines, some of the oil for frying, a 400g tin cannellini beans, 1 diced onion, 1 finely chopped garlic clove, 2-3 chopped tomatoes, 1 finely chopped red chilli, a roughly chopped bunch of parsley, 1 tbsp capers, lemon juice, salt, black pepper, and extra virgin olive oil to serve.
Sauté the onion for a few minutes till nearly soft, then add the garlic. Cook for a minute. Add the tomato; continue to cook until soft and beginning to break down. Add the sardines: break these down with a wooden spoon as they heat up, and then add the beans. Season. Once all is heated through, stir in chilli, parsley and capers and some lemon juice. Loosen a little with some extra virgin olive oil. Personally I like to add potatoes as well: in that case I only use half the beans. I do love potatoes – but then ours are very local!

ANCHOVY ideas:
Put an anchovy on top of a soft-boiled egg.
Make pasta with onions and anchovies
Mix 10 finely chopped anchovies with 100g unsalted butter at room temperature and chives or other fresh herbs. Serve with bread.

SORREL PESTO
50g sorrel, 10g flat leaf parsley, 1 large clove garlic, crushed, 1 tbsp pine kernels, 6 tbsp extra virgin olive oil, 25g grated mature cheese.
Blanch sorrel and parsley for 20 secs in fast boiling water. Refresh in cold water, drain and squeeze out any excess. Blend to a smooth purée with garlic, pine nuts, olive oil and a pinch of salt, . Transfer to a bowl, stir in cheese.

SORREL and (GOAT) CHEESE QUICHE
700ml coarsely chopped sorrel, a pastry or pie crust, some chopped spring or little onions, 80g goat (or other strong) cheese, 3 eggs, 300ml milk, ¼ tsp salt, grated mature cheddar cheese, pepper.
Preheat oven to 190°C. Spread goat cheese in the bottom of the piecrust. Cover with chopped sorrel and onions. Beat eggs, salt and milk together. Pour over greens. Sprinkle with grated cheese. Bake for 35 to 40 minutes or until the top is golden brown. Let rest for 20 mins, and reheat if wanted.

SPRING GREENS with BLACK PEPPER and CREME FRAÎCHE
400g trimmed spring greens, 6 tbsp crème fraîche, sea salt and freshly ground black pepper.
Chop spring greens, cook in salted water, for 5-15 minutes depending on toughness and how you like them, drain. Mix crème fraîche in the pan with sea salt and pepper: bring almost to the boil. Add spring greens, stir, reheat gently, season if necessary.

[1] http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=117
[2] http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?dbid=84&tname=nutrient
[3] http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2509010/Supermarket-fresh-fish-THREE-weeks-old.html
[4] http://www.fish4ever.co.uk
http://www.channel4.com/programmes/hughs-fish-fight/articles/all/where-to-buy-sustainable-fish/545
https://www.choice.com.au/food-and-drink/meat-fish-and-eggs/fish/articles/the-facts-on-fish
https://www.msc.org/newsroom/news/best-in-the-world-or-leagues-behind-uk-supermarkets
[5] https://www.greenpeace.org.uk/what-we-do/oceans/better-buys-what-fish-can-i-eat/sustainable-seafood-faqs/#7
https://www.ciwf.org.uk/farm-animals/fish/
http://greenopedia.com/healthy-sustainable-fish/ https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2017/07/08/the-fish-on-my-plate-documentary.aspx
[6] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/foodanddrink/11542239/No-cod-no-haddock-what-fish-can-we-eat-with-a-clean-conscience.html
[7] https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2007/dec/18/fishing.conservation
https://www.greenpeace.org.uk/what-we-do/oceans/better-buys-what-fish-can-i-eat/sustainable-seafood-faqs/
https://www.mcsuk.org/downloads/fisheries/fishweek/FishWeek_FishList_Jan2011.pdf
https://www.mcsuk.org/goodfishguide/search
http://greenopedia.com/healthy-sustainable-fish/
http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/news/britains-unadventurous-fish-eaters-told-to-take-the-plunge-and-try-gurnard-2178073.html
[8] http://overfishing.org/pages/guide_to_good_fish.php
[9] https://www.mcsuk.org/downloads/fisheries/BuyingFishInSeason.pdf

 

 

March 2018: no worries?

 

Worrying can be good if it motivates us to take action and solve problems. But very often it isn’t like that.
We worry about things which we can’t do anything about. Or we worry too much about tiny details. “Is this enough?” “What shall I give them?” “What can I wear?” “Will they like the present?”
And when you worry too much, it becomes counterproductive. Chronic worry causes tension, sleepless nights, bad work, and may even lead to anxiety attacks.
Telling yourself to stop worrying is like trying not to think of a pink elephant. The harder you try, the worse it gets.
But how can we change – just a little bit?

1) Make a list of things you worry about. Just having it written down helps.

2) Cut back – should you really be doing all this? If something doesn’t get done, does it matter? Just say no – if others can say it, so can you.

3) Ask for help. You know, many people actually like it if you ask them for help, if you say you can’t cope alone. They might not do a job in the same way you do, but so what?

4) Learn to delegate. Try with small jobs first. Noone does things perfectly, not even you!

5) Accept imperfection, especially in the small stuff.

6) If you really can’t help worrying, worry regularly. For the same period, like 15 minutes, every day, indulge in worrying as much as you like. When time is up, postpone all your worries until next day, same time. Or if an anxious thought comes into your head during the day, just make a brief note for later. Remind yourself that you’ll have time to think about it later, so there’s no need to worry about it right now.

7) Guided relaxation (1) and meditation (2) are a good idea, especially for the long term.

8) Move! Walking outdoors is ideal, but any form of exercise is good. When you exercise, endorphins will trigger positive feelings in your body, similar to that of morphine.

9) Eat healthily. Worry sucks energy and increases production of pro-inflammatory chemicals. To counteract this, enjoy whole or minimally-processed anti-inflammatory foods such as whole grains, dark leafy greens, nuts, garlic/onions, ginger, turmeric, olive oil, beetroot and berries.
Avoid stimulating foods like caffeine and sugar, also – especially! – in the form of corn syrup, dextrose, fructose, golden syrup, maltose, and sucrose. All of these increase anxiety, exacerbate insomnia and in the case of sugar, cause excessive blood sugar fluctuations. See (3).

And have a look at
https://www.helpguide.org/articles/anxiety/how-to-stop-worrying.htm
http://www.health.com/health/gallery/0,,20669377,00.html#stop-catastrophizing-0.

SOW:
broad beans, early carrots, early Brussels, parsnips, main crop peas, radish, spinach (or spinach beet, better value than proper spinach), chard, turnip, lettuce, early/summer cabbage, spring onions, early cauli, bulb onions, beet, celery (late March).
Plant: potatoes, onion sets, shallots, asparagus, Jerusalem artichokes.

EAT:
veg: purple sprouting broccoli, kale, cavolo nero, squash, cauli, spring greens, radishes, rhubarb, leeks, carrots, spring onions, salad leaves, parsnips, cabbage, chicory, sorrel, swede, beet, brussels, rocket, turnips, celeriac, Jerusalem artichokes, watercress.
fish: dab, red gurnard, grey mullet, mussels, oysters, clams, mackerel, herring, megrim, scallops.
meat: rabbit, turkey, wood pigeon, beef, mutton, pork, venison.

See also http://eatseasonably.co.uk/what-to-eat-now/this-months-best/.

By the way, have you ever though of joining a box scheme? Fresh veg delivered to your house every week. It’s local, it’s cheaper and most likely organic. You can find them at http://www.bigbarn.co.uk/.

MASHED TURNIPS with SAGE
2 turnips and 2 floury potatoes, 3 tblsp butter, 1 chopped onion, 2 chopped tblsp sage, ab. 200ml milk, salt and freshly ground pepper
Peel and cube the turnips and potatoes; put in some cold salted water. Bring to a boil and simmer until soft and tender, about 20 mins. Sauté the onion with the sage until the sage is fragrant and the butter begins to brown. Season. Drain turnips and potatoes. Add the milk and roughly mash. If you prefer a smoother texture, use a blender. Taste, season if necessary.
If you like, you can use a different proportion of turnips and potatoes.

SPICED PEANUT PARSNIP SOUP for 2.
This is an unusual soup. You either like it, or you don’t. If you don’t, just use it as a sauce on a rice-and-vegetable dish. It’s best if your peanut butter doesn’t have sugar in it.
200g parsnips cut into chunks, 1 large onion, 2 garlic cloves, 2 cm fresh ginger root, 2 tblsp grated coconut, 2 tblsp peanut butter, 1 tsp ground cumin, 45g coriander leaves, plenty of chilli powder or cayenne, grated zest of 1 orange and some pumpkin seeds if you like.
Cut the parsnips, onion, ginger and garlic into chunks and roast in an 200°C over for 20 minutes (or carefully sauté on top). Put in a pan, add 720ml water and cook till all is soft.
Mix with the peanut butter, coconut, chili, cumin and coriander and blend, keeping some coriander for on top. Add more water if needed. Serve sprinkled with coriander (pumpkin seeds) and zest.

SAUTEED KALE
Chop kale and onion finely. Heat some fat, add both vegetables, stir, cover, and fry like that on a very low fire for a few minutes. Then add a little bit of water and cover again. Let cook till kale and onion are digestible, take off the cover and sauté some more till any water left has disappeared. Add seasalt or soy sauce, serve.

BREAM WITH BASIL BALSAMIC
Score sides of a whole bream and pack cuts with a roughly pounded mix of 3 tblsp balsamic vinegar, a garlic clove and a handful of basil per fish. Roast for 20 mins or until flaking off the bone at 190ºC. Serve with peas.

CELERIAC SALAD
650g celeriac, 150ml walnut halves, 120ml mayonnaise, 1 tsp Dijon mustard, lemon juice, 2 tblsp chopped (flatleaf) parsley, 2 tblsp minced shallot, 1 tblsp fresh chopped tarragon, julienned cooking apple, salt, pepper.
Combine mayonnaise, mustard, lemon juice, parsley, tarragon and shallot. Cut off one side of the celeriac to create a stable flat working surface and remove all brown knobby parts. Rougly grate celeriac and apple, mix with mayonnaise, adjust seasoning. Toast walnuts until fragrant and slightly browned, put on top.

PURPLE SPROUTING BROCCOLI with GARLIC and SESAME
450g broccoli, oil, soy sauce/tamari, 1 1/2 tblsp sesame seeds, 1 clove garlic.
Dry-roast sesame seeds. Cook broccoli for 3 mins. Saute garlic for 1 min., add drained broccoli. Keep stirring for 2-3 mins. Add soy and sesame, serve.

ROCKET SOUP with GOAT’S CHEESE
100g rocket, 75g soft goat’s cheese, 1 diced onion, olive oil, 1 diced potato, 800 ml water.
Fry onion gently in the oil until it softens, add potato and water and bring to a simmer. Cook until the potato is soft. Season, but go easy on the salt, because the cheese will add plenty. Add chopped rocket, cook for 2 mins. Whizz in a blender. Pour into bowls and add a slice of goat’s cheese to each.

PUMPKIN CRISPS
1/2 small pumpkin, olive oil.
Preheat oven to 150ºC. Cut pumpkin into 2-3 chunks, peel and seed each chunk and cut into slices about 2mm thick. Dry the slices. Place in a single layer on two lined baking trays. Brush with oil and sprinkle with a good pinch of sea salt. Let sit for 5 mins before placing in the oven. Bake for 25 mins, or until crisp and golden. Remove from the oven to cool so they’ll crisp up. The crisps will stay fresh in an airtight container for up to 2 weeks.

 

Next month: fish forever?

(1) https://theconsciouslife.com/guided-meditation-for-stress-anxiety.htm
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1vx8iUvfyCY
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXj_KeDXgCU
(2) http://thoughtforfood-aw.blogspot.co.uk/2017/07/july-2014-just-relax.html
(3) http://thoughtforfood-aw.blogspot.co.uk/2017/05/may-2014-inflammation_2.html

 

February 2018: the thyroid

THE THYROID

How would you notice that something is wrong with your thyroid gland? This gland can be either too lazy or it may work too hard.
Located in the lower part of the neck, the thyroid gland regulates how fast the body burns food and controls energy levels. It also regulates body temperature, carbohydrate breakdown, mental clarity, well-being, vitamin absorption, cholesterol levels, production of nails and hair, skin suppleness and sex drive.

By far the most common problem is underperformance: you are hypothyroid. This can make you, amongst other things:
constipated, depressed, forgetful, tired, restless; gain weight, feel cold, have dry hair or loose it, have coarse skin or carpal tunnel syndrome, or cause strange feelings in neck or throat: a goiter. See [1].

When it works too hard, you are hyperthyroid. This can make you, amongst other things:
shaky, hot, sweating, loose weight, nervous, irritable, weak, loose hair, restless, anxious, and short of breath. It can make your heart race, cause diarrhoea, insomnia, increased appetite and eye problems, have coarse or itchy skin and an irregular menstrual cycle. See [1].

So – what to do if you think there is something wrong?
If you suspect a problem in this area, go to the doctor. But you can help a lot yourself too.

If your thyroid is underactive, try the following.
• Avoid peanuts and raw brassicas: Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, turnips and kale. Also peaches, pears and spinach. They block the uptake of iodine into the thyroid gland.
• Also avoid unfermented soy. Soy, too, blocks iodine uptake, thereby starving the thyroid of essential nutrients. This means: no tofu, no soy milk, no edamame or soybean oil. Read the labels: soy is cheap, so it is used in lots of products! Only fermented soy, like tamari or fermented soy sauce, tempeh and miso are recommended [2].
• Eat your food nice and hot.
• Eat plenty of veg and fruit, less sugar and refined products.
• Try avoid stress [3].
• Exercise – but moderately.
• Ideally avoid the pill and its surfeit of hormones.
• Avoid toxic food and heavy metals: eat organic, less meat.
• Use natural products which don’t contain hormone disruptors.
• And special yoga exercises under trained supervision do help; so does acupuncture [4].
• See also [5].
A hyperactive thyroid is much more rare.
There are herbs (hawthorn, bugleweed, motherwort and lemon balm) and foods (oats and food rich in calcium, magnesium and vitamin D) which help prevent problems associated with hyperthyroidism. Enough sleep and regular exercise are important, as always.
See [6].

TO EAT:
Veg: beet, purple sprouting broccoli, brussels, (savoy) cabbage, carrots, chard, celeriac, kale, cavolo nero, leek, parsnip, potato, pumpkin, rocket, spinach, swede, turnip, Jerusalem artichoke, chicory, corn salad, endive, kohlrabi, salsify, winter purslane.
Meat: goose, mallard, partridge, pheasant, venison.
Fish: bib, cockles, crab, dab, flounder, lobster, mackerel, oysters, pollack, scallops, seabass, whiting.
See also http://eatseasonably.co.uk/what-to-eat-now/this-months-best/.

TO SOW/PLANT (outdoors):
If the weather is suitable: garlic, broad beans, spring onions, shallots, early peas, carrots, parsnips, green/red cabbage, onion sets. And apple trees, if the weather isn’t too severe and the ground not waterlogged or frozen.


RECIPES

SPICED PARSNIP SOUP
700g diced parsnips, 1 sliced onion, 40g butter, 2 tsp curry powder, 1 tsp ground cumin, 1.2ltr water, salt, pepper, 150ml single cream, paprika, parsley.
Melt butter, add onion, saute for 6 mins. Add parsnips, saute for 3 mins. Stir in curry powder and cumin, cook for 2 mins. Add water, season, bring to boil. Reduce heat, cover and simmer until veg are tender. Mash or puree. Season, add cream and reheat but don’t boil. Sprinkle with paprika and parsley.

SCALLOPS WITH LAMBS’ LETTUCE (= corn salad)
6 large scallops, 1 sharp apple, 2 handfuls of corn salad, some lemon juice and zest, salt, pepper.
Cut apple in strips. Mix with lettuce, zest, oil, seasoning.
For the scallops: heat 1 tblsp of oil. Lay scallops on board, pat dry, season one side. Think of the pan as a clockface and add scallops, seasoned side down, in a clockwise order, then fry 1-2 mins. Season other side, flip over and repeat. Squeeze lemon over and shake pan. Divide salad between 2 plates, arrange scallops around each pile. Garnish with remaining zest, serve immediately.

EXOTIC KALE-PEA COMBINATION
400g shredded kale, 150g (frozen) peas, 1 tsp cumin seeds, 1/2 tsp mustard seeds (or some mustard), 1/2 tsp turmeric, chillies or chilli powder, ginger (pref. fresh grated), juice 1 lemon, 1/2 tsp ground coriander, oil.
Heat oil, sizzle cumin and mustard seeds for 1 min, add chilli, ginger and turmeric. Fry until aromatic, add kale, salt, peas and bit of water. Cover and cook for ab. 5 mins until kale has wilted. Add lemon juice, ground coriander, mix, serve.

PINK PANCAKES: 6 pancakes, breakfast for 2.
120ml finely grated raw (or cooked) beetroot, 120ml grated apple, 1 egg, 240ml flour, 2 heaped tsp baking powder, 120ml water, ½ tsp of mixed spice, salt, olive oil, butter, honey.
Whisk egg until frothy. Add flour, baking powder, salt, then water. Give it a good whisk. Fold in apple, beet and spice. Heat oil, drop dessert spoonfuls of the batter into the pan centre. When it starts to bubble up, flip over and cook for 2 mins or so. Don’t press pancake down as it cooks as this will press out the air bubbles. When all your pancakes are cooked, put butter on top of each. Serve with honey.

KALE CHIPS – surprisingly nice!
Ab. 170g kale, 1 tblsp apple cider vinegar, 2tblsp extra virgin olive oil, 1/4 tsp salt.
Rinse the kale, strip the leaves from the stems, cut into 5 cm pieces. Dry thoroughly. Mix the dressing and massage it into the kale pieces with your hands, for 1-2 minutes. Place on oven sheets and bake for 20—30 mins at 145°C. Turn the pieces for the last 10 mins, to make sure both sides are thoroughly dried out and crisp.

SIMPLE LEEKY (WHOLEMEAL) PASTA with SARDINES for 2.
1 tin sardines, ab. 200g cleaned chopped leeks, 100-200g wholemeal pasta, 1 clove garlic, thyme, soy sauce, lemon juice, salt, pepper, cayenne/chilli or 1 red chilli pepper.
Bring a pan of salted water to the boil, add pasta and leeks. Just before they’re done (they will probably be done at the same time) sauté the chopped garlic, chilli and some thyme leaves in the sardine oil. Stir, cook for a few minutes – don’t let the garlic brown! – and add the sardines. Don’t mash them too finely. Put a lid on to let them warm up. Add the pasta/leeks which should be cooked by now. Stir, heat through, add soy sauce to taste (and salt/pepper if needed) and a squeeze of lemon juice.

SWEDE SPELTOTTO
300g pearled spelt or barley, 400g swede cut into 1cm dice, 2 chopped onions, 1 chopped garlic clove, plenty of chopped parsley, 50g grated hard well-flavoured cheese plus extra to serve, 1l water/stock, 20g butter, 2 tblsp olive oil, nutmeg, seasoning.
Heat water/stock. In another pan slowly heat butter and oil, add onions and sweat gently until soft. Add garlic and swede, stir for 2 mins. Add spelt/barley and stir for 2 mins, making sure all grains are well coated with grease. Now start adding stock slowly, a quarter at a time, stirring often. When it’s all in, cook about 25 mins for spelt or a bit longer for barley, to a tender texture with a hint of bite. Stir in parsley and cheese. Add salt, plenty of pepper, nutmeg. Serve topped with more grated cheese. Serve with a green salad.

PURPLE SPROUTING CABBAGE with EGG and GARAM MASALA for 2 (adapted from Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall).
3 large eggs at room temperature, 200g purple sprouting broccoli, 50g butter, 2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil, 1 garlic clove, grated or very finely chopped, 2tsp garam masala, sea salt, pepper.
Put eggs in boiling water, cook for 6 mins: drain and rinse cold, peel.
Chop off the woody ends and steam or boil the broccoli. Steamed, it will keep more colour. Cook for 4-6 mins until just tender, drain. Melt the butter with the oil, add garlic, then garam masala. Turn the heat down very low and cook for 1-2 mins, season. Put the broccoli on a warm plate/plates. Halve the eggs and place on top. Dress both with the spicy fat, serve.
Instead of broccoli you can use other greens, like young leaves of kale or cavolo nero. If you don’t have masala you can use curry powder, which gives a different flavour.

Next month: no worries …..

[1] https://www.verywell.com/do-you-have-a-thyroid-problem-take-the-test-3231838
https://www.piedmont.org/living-better/the-difference-between-hypothyroidism-and-hyperthyroidism
[2] https://thewholejourney.com/soy-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly/
[3] https://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/thyroid/how-stress-affects-your-thyroid
[4] http://www.home-remedies-for-you.com/remedy/Hypothyroidism.html
[5] www.womentowomen.com/hypothyroidism/foods-naturalthyroidhealth.aspx
http://ezinearticles.com/?Foods-That-Will-Make-Your-Underactive-Thyroid-Symptoms-Worse&id=672658
http://www.top10homeremedies.com/home-remedies/home-remedies-for-hypothyroidism.html
http://www.home-remedies-for-you.com/remedy/Hypothyroidism.html, https://draxe.com/hypothyroidism-diet-natural-treatment/
[6] http://www.home-remedies-for-you.com/remedy/Hyperthyroidism.html
http://www.top10homeremedies.com/home-remedies/home-remedies-for-hyperthyroidism.html
http://www.allayurvedicremedies.com/home-remedies-for-hyperthyroidism.htm
https://www.belmarrahealth.com/hyperthyroidism-overactive-thyroid-causes-symptoms-treatment-home-remedies-diet/

December 2017: drink!?

December: let’s have a look at alcohol, again.
Alcohol and health was mentioned before: in the ‘drinking’ issue of December 2014. However, the issue can do with some more digging.
Every so often you read about the health-giving effects of, say, red wine, or how drinking alcohol in moderation might be good for your bones. These stories always mention ‘moderation’, which is of course an important problem.
I myself have never been particularly tempted by alcohol. I’m an eater, not a drinker. And after cancer treatment twelve years ago, I found that even one glass of wine made me feel the same as I had felt during the six weeks of chemoradiation. So that was it: never again.
My husband drinks regularly, but never even has a hangover. Mind you, he stays away from the cheaper stuff.
People are different. During your lifetime you learn what suits you or what you can live without. And what you can’t live without, regardless of the consequences.
I found some interesting websites about the pros and cons of alcohol [1].
Apparently, the older you are, the more you can drink, says a, possibly dated, study from 2002. Men over 85 years old can drink as much as 5 units a day without ill effects [2]. Hurray!
However, just recently they found that the positive side of alcohol has been overstated [3]. Studies which showed that moderate consumption might be good for you, may have been misguided. The abstainers in them often included people who had cut back, or stopped drinking, because of ill health or old age. This made non-drinkers look like a far less healthy group than the general population [4].
The type of alcohol is not as important as the amount of alcohol consumed and the pattern of intake. The latest UK government guidelines tell us not to drink more than 14 units a week, best spread evenly over 3 or more days: a unit being about half a pint of beer, half a glass of wine, or one pub measure (25ml) of spirits. That is, unless you’re young, old, thin, sick or on medicines .…… For the complete list, see [5].

See also:
for sneaky ways to say no: http://www.health.com/health/article/0,,20410241,00.html;
for some more myths to bust: https://greatist.com/health/13-biggest-myths-alcohol;
what not to drink if you like beer: http://www.therichest.com/rich-list/most-shocking/10-beers-that-are-shockingly-bad-for-you/;
and (not too un-) healthy drinking tips: http://thehealthydrinker.com/2010/03/10-healthy-drinking-tips/.

Here is some more general stuff:
http://www.medicaldaily.com/lets-get-drunk-healthiest-ways-drink-alcohol-269583
http://www.healthline.com/nutrition/alcohol-good-or-bad#section11
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/12086226/Red-wine-is-bad-for-you-say-experts.html
http://www.naturalnews.com/022739_wine_alcohol_chemicals.html

You might also want to look at our tips for preventing and curing hangovers in the 2014 December issue. See http://thoughtforfood-aw.blogspot.co.uk/2016/12/december-2014-drink-drank-drunk.html.
And, just in case you’re stressed – why on earth? 😉 – here are some suggestions: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/men/active/mens-health/11303498/How-to-deal-with-the-stress-of-Christmas.html. And look at http://blog.naturalhealthyconcepts.com/2017/11/17/healthy-holiday-eating/ for ways to get through December without too much damage.

EAT
Veg: Brussels’, beet, sprout tops, cabbage, celeriac, celery (with Stilton!), corn salad, Jerusalem artichokes, carrots, salsify, kale, kohlrabi, landcress, leeks, parsnips, pumpkin/squash, rocket, spinach, swede, turnips, winter radish, endive, winter purslane.
Meat: wood pigeon, pheasant, wild duck, goose, grouse, partridge, venison. For (Christmas) game recipes, see www.gametoeat.co.uk/.
Fish: coley, megrim, clams, crab, cuttlefish, mussels, oysters, scallops, whiting.

PLANT
Shallots are traditionally planted on the shortest day. You can still plant garlic.
If you leave veg in the ground, apply a thick mulch (straw, bracken or newspaper) for protection, and so as to get them out easily.

 

LENTIL, CARROT and KALE SOUP with CREME FRAICHE and DILL for 6.
600g green or brown lentils soaked overnight, 3 large carrots cut into 1cm slices, 125g cleaned chopped kale, 1 chopped leek, 5-10 tblsp tomato puree, 2.5l (homemade) chicken stock, 4 tblsp butter, 2 tsp coarse seasalt, juice of half a lemon, 120ml creme fraîche or sour cream, dill, 60ml red wine (optional).
Drain the lentils. Sweat carrots and leeks for 10 mins in butter. Add liquid, tomato, lentils (and wine); cook till the lentils are done. Blend or mash. Stir in the finely cut kale and salt, boil for however raw or cooked you like the kale. Add lemon juice, creme fraîche or sour cream, heat through and serve sprinkled with dill.

BEETROOT, APPLE, PEAR, WALNUT and STILTON SALAD
Personally I prefer raw (only washed, not peeled) grated beetroot, but by all means use cooked beet if you like.
2 beet, 2 apples, winter salad leaves like corn salad and rocket, 2 Conference pears, 4 tbsp lightly toasted walnuts, 2 tbsp olive/walnut oil, 2 tbsp balsamic vinegar, 1 minced garlic clove, 75-100g Stilton or soft, crumbly goat’s cheese, pepper, sea salt.
Grate beet and apple coarsely. Mix. Whisk oil and vinegar, add garlic, salt, pepper. Dress beet and apple with 1/2 the dressing. Use remaining half to lightly dress the leaves – you may not need all of the dressing. In the centre of the dressed leaves, add mound of grated apple/beet. Core pears, cut into 1cm thick slices and arrange around the beetroot/apple mound. Break walnuts up a bit and arrange over leaves and pears. Finish with crumbled Stilton or goat’s cheese, and pepper.

MARMITE SPAGHETTI with LEEKS, serves 4 – 6.
375g (wholewheat) spaghetti, 800g leeks (or more!) weighed after cleaning, 60g butter, 1-2 tsp marmite (or more!), grated mature cheese to serve.
Chop the leeks. Boil up some salted water, add the spaghetti and leeks. Meanwhile melt butter, add marmite and 1 tblsp pasta water, mix. The spaghetti and the leeks will be ready at the same time. Drain; reserve the water. Pour the marmite mix over spaghetti, adding some reserved pasta water if required. Serve with plenty of cheese.

And if you are having a vegetarian Christmas, why not try this one?
SOMERSET TOURTIERE
480ml cooked lentils, 480ml walnut halves; 10 chopped mushrooms, 180ml grated floury potato, 120ml dry cider, 1 tblsp olive oil, 1 large diced onion, 3 minced garlic cloves, 300ml water/stock, 1 tsp dried thyme, 1/2 tsp dried savory, 1/2 tsp ground sage, 2 bay leaves, salt, pepper, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, 1/8 tsp ground cloves, 1/8 tsp nutmeg, 1/2 tsp worcestershire sauce (optional), pastry dough for 1 double pie crust of 23cm diameter.
Sauté the onion in oil until it begins to soften, add mushrooms. Sauté until most of their juices have been released. Add garlic, sauté for 2 more mins. Grind the walnuts. Mix in the lentils, walnuts, broth, wine, thyme, savory, sage and bay. Season and simmer until most of the liquid has evaporated. Remove bay and add: liquid, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg and potato. Cook until the potato is soft, about 10 mins. Season. Chill for 1 hr.
Roll out one dough disk on a lightly floured surface into a 30cm round. Transfer to the pie dish, leaving an overhang. Fill with lentil mix. Roll out the remaining dough disk into a 10″ round. Place dough over the filling. Fold overhang over the top crust and crimp the edges. Brush the crust with milk. Cut three 6cm slits in the top. Let rest for 1 hr, or put in the fridge till tomorrow. Preheat the oven to 200°C. Bake for 30 mins. Reduce heat to 180°C; bake until the crust is golden and the filling bubbles, for 40-50 mins. Let cool for 20 minutes before serving.

And here it comes, finally, the drink!
MULLED CIDER
Two 500ml bottles of good strong dry cider, 3 squashed cardamon pods; a lump of ginger about the size of the top joint of a thumb; the rind of an orange without the pith; 1 star anise; 10 cloves; ½ tsp mixed spice; half a thinly sliced apple; a good slug of rum/brandy.
Stud the orange peel with cloves. Place everything apart from the rum/brandy in a pan, bring to the boil. Turn down the heat, simmer gently for 10 mins. Spices can of course be varied according to taste and the contents of your cupboard.

LIME ENCRUSTED COLEY
4x175g coley fillets, 2 limes, 200g breadcrumbs, 50g butter, salt, pepper, 1 tblsp olive oil.
Preheat the oven to 200°C. Grate lime zest. Fry crumbs and zest in the butter for 2-3 mins, stirring until pale golden. Put fish in a shallow dish. Season and squeeze over a little lime juice. Drizzle with the oil. Pat crumb mixture on top and bake for 10-12 minutes until cooked. Garnish with lime wedges.

BRAISED PIGEON in CHOCOLATE SAUCE (from Cook it Simply)
4 pigeons, 2 garlic cloves, 1 tsp salt, freshly ground black pepper, 4 tbsp olive oil, 1 tbsp plain flour, 4 tbsp dry white wine, 250ml stock/water, 200g shallots, 50g plain/dark chocolate.
Finely chop garlic. Wash pigeons, dry and rub with salt and pepper, inside and out. Brown pigeons in oil before removing from pan. Fry garlic in remaining oil. Stir flour into oil, fry briefly, add wine and stock. Simmer for 5 mins, stirring constantly. Put pigeons into sauce, cover and cook for 1 hr on a low heat. Chop shallots finely and add after 40 mins. Pre-heat oven to 120°C. Arrange pigeons on a serving dish and keep hot in oven. Grate chocolate and add to sauce, stirring continuously over a low heat until melted. Do not let the sauce boil again. Season generously and serve with the pigeons. Goes well with roast potatoes and parsnips.
This sauce can also be used with venison. Thank you, Chris!

OXFORD JOHN STEAKS with CAPERS
4x150g lamb leg steaks, 25g butter, 1-2 tsp flour, 300 ml lamb/beef stock, 2 tblsp drained capers, 1 tblsp vinegar from the capers.
Fry steaks gently for 10-15 mins, turning occasionally, until browned both sides. Transfer to warmed dish. Stir, to loosen any sediment at the bottom of the pan: stir in flour and cook for 1-2 mins. Gradually add stock, stirring all the time. Cook until the sauce thickens, boils and is smooth. Add capers and vinegar and simmer for 1-2 mins. Return lamb steaks to pan and simmer for 5 mins or until the lamb is cooked to your liking. Serve hot.

NUT ROAST for 6-8
30g butter, 2 finely chopped sticks of celery, 1 finely chopped onion, 360ml hot water, 1 tsp marmite/vecon, 550g ground nuts (cashews, almonds, brazils, peanuts), 2 tblsp flour, 4 tsp fresh herbs (if using dried 1 tsp), 160g bread crumbs, salt, pepper.
This nut roast is delicious. The slightly boring looks will improve if, after turning out, you put holly on top or something like that.
Melt butter, cook celery and onion in it for a few mins. Mix marmite/vecon into hot water and add to onion-celery mix. Stir flour into the nuts, then mix in herbs, crumbs, salt and pepper. Grease a loaf tin. Place mix in tin and press. Bake in the oven for 40 mins at 180ºC, turn out and slice. Good served with all the trimmings.
Variations:- you can substitute wine or milk for the water-and-yeast extract. A layer of sliced mushrooms and garlic is nice. Or fill with sage and onion stuffing.

Next month: teeth.

[1] http://www.marksdailyapple.com/alcohol-the-good-and-the-bad
http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/addiction/news/20140814/amount-alcohol
[2] http://www.nutraingredients.com/Research/The-older-you-are-the-more-you-can-drink-says-study
[3] http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/alcohol/Pages/Effectsofalcohol.aspx
[4] http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20150901-is-alcohol-really-bad-for-you
[5] https://www.drinkaware.co.uk/alcohol-facts/alcoholic-drinks-units/alcohol-limits-unit-guidelines/